十个你不可不知的写作修辞手法

2018.05.21
十个你不可不知的写作修辞手法

修辞,是语言表达的一种艺术形式,发源于古希腊。

将这种可靠正确的手法运用到你的写作中,正如作家玩文字游戏一样有趣。下面是一些有用的修辞手法的简要定义以及例句:

1.Amplication 详述

在重复单词与短语时添加更多的细节,以此来强调可能错过的内容。换句话说,详述的手法可以引起读者注意,加深印象,详细描述一个单词或概念,使读者意识到它的重要性。

例句:“A massive tree centuries old holds out against the odds here across from my mother’s house, one of the biggest trees in Pittsburgh, anchored in a green tangle of weeds and bushes, trunk thick as a Buick, black as night after rain soaks its striated hide. Huge spread of its branches canopies the foot of the hill where the streets come together…” [1]

2.Anaphora 反复

重复使用短语、从句或句子。

例句:Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s 著名的演讲 “I Have a Dream” , 他重复了”I have a dream” 八次。[2] Dr. MLK Jr.通过重复这一个短句的方法,为读者敲响警钟,使得他的演讲更有力。

3.Allusion 引喻

对名人或著名事件中的简短的,非正式的引用。

例句: I must have won the “golden ticket.” (引自小说:Charlie and the Chocolate Factory)

4.Climax 渐进

将一系列单词,从句与句子根据其重要程度,语气强弱逐层递进排列。排比是渐进的一种形式,使文章条理清晰,层次分明。

例句: “Out of its vivid disorder comes order; from its rank smell rises the good aroma of courage and daring; out of its preliminary shabbiness comes the final splendor. And buried in the familiar boasts of its advance agents lies the modesty of most of its people.”   [3]

5.Hyperbole夸张

故意夸大事实来强调表达内容或表达效果。在正式写作中,夸张手法必须明确,且使用上有一定的限制。

例句:“There are a thousand reasons why more research is needed on solar energy.”

6.Hypophora

提出一个或一个以上的问题,然后再自问自答,通常回答有一定的长度。常用的设问形式为在段落的开头提出问题,用一段回答这个问题。

例句:“Does learning only occur inside the classrooms? I don’t think so.”

7.Metaphor暗喻

通过表示某个事物的词指代另一种事物,从而暗示它们的相似之处。不同于明喻,暗喻认为一种事物就是另一种事物,不仅仅是像另一种事物。

例句:“Knowledge always desires increase: it is like fire, which must first be kindled by some external agent, but which will afterwards propagate itself. “–Samuel Johnson

8.Personification拟人

隐含的将一种动物或无生命的物体赋予人的属性——形式,性格,情感,行为等等。思想与抽象事物也可被拟人化。

例句:We bought this car instead of the one on sale, because this one is more friendly.

9.Rhetorical question 反问

不同于设问,作者通常不会进行回答反问的问题,因为答案很明显,且通常回答只有是或不是。反问用来表达效果,强调内容,表达愤怒,或得出结论

例句:For example: “Must I argue the wrongfulness of slavery?” [4]

10. Simile 明喻

将两种至少具有一个共同特征的事物进行比较。散文中明喻兼具艺术性与论证性,将不熟悉的事物与熟知的事物(物体,事件,过程等)相比较。

例句: I feel imprisoned, as a bird in a cage.

 

同学们,以上这些修辞手法你都学会了吗?语言的艺术是不是很有魅力呢?下一次写作时,试试运用这些写作手法帮你写出漂亮的句子!


Reference:

1.      John Edgar Wideman, “All Stories Are True.” The Stories of John Edgar Wideman. Random House, 1996

2.      Dlugan, Andrew 2009, “Speech Analysis: I Have a Dream – Martin Luther King Jr”.

3.      E.B. White “The Ring of Time”, 1956.  http://www.brunswick.k12.me.us/hdwyer/the-ring-of-time-by-e-b-white-3/

4.      Frederick Douglass, “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?” July 5, 1852